The Key Grip in the lighting department works closely with the Director of Photography and the Gaffer to sculpt the desired look of a film by diffusing and cutting the light. In the camera department, the Key Grip is in charge of the other grips and manages the camera support and movement whether on a dolly, camera crane or mounted on the hood or bumper of a vehicle.
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Lighting Camera Persons play the most senior role in television camera departments. They interpret the Director's vision for the programme, and use their advanced technical skills in lighting and camerawork to produce and capture moving images. They also liaise closely with other members of the production team to create each required shot, and to motivate and encourage them in their work. On a factual production and in news reporting, the Director of Photography is known as the Lighting Camera person and operates the camera him or herself, sometimes with the support of a Camera Assistant but often alone.
The Lighting Director is the most senior role in television lighting department. Using the script or brief from the Production team and Director, they design the specific look required for the set. They use their advanced technical skills to realise the design and, with the help of the rest of the lighting department, gaffer and electricians - who set up and operate specialised lights and accessories. As lighting is an essential part of programmes' overall design and style, this is a key creative and technical role.
Encompasses all the equipment used to light a set, from individual lamps of various types to dimmers and riggings.
Lighting Vision Operator
The Lighting Vision Operator works alongside the Lighting Director, both technically and creatively, in the studio gallery. It's their job to control the exposure of all the cameras, making sure they all match when cutting from one to another and also to enhance the style and look created by the Lighting Director.
Lighting Vision Supervisor
In television studio, the Lighting Vision Supervisor operates the dimmer console in collaboration with the Lighting Director, to create the look imagined and planned by the Lighting Director when he designed the lighting rig for the programme.
Lightworks Editors work on an digital editing system called Lightworks, similar to Avid and Final Cut Pro. The difference with Lightworks is in its console and user interface which together provide a more ergonomic and symbiotic user experience, allowing for flexible and fast editing. Lightworks can run standalone or in networked systems and integrate with Geevs Servers.
The Line Producer is one of the first people to be employed on a film's production by the Producer and Executive Producers. The Line Producer prepares the budget and shooting schedule for the film based on the script. Once the film goes into production, the Line Producer oversees the day-to-day running of the production in association with the Production Manager and both ultimately report to the Producer.
The Location Assistant, also known as the Assistant Location Manager (ALM) works with the Location Manager and Unit Manager on feature films. On smaller films, the roles of the ALM and the Unit Manager are combined, since many of the responsibilities are interchangeable. The work is logistical and involves arranging parking for the production, catering and wardrobe vehicles and providing back up to the Location Manager. During shooting the ALM is on the set to liaise between the production and the location authorities and to look after any problems that may arise.
Film crews work long hours and need to eat well. On sets or locations, the standard daily meals are breakfast, lunch and dinner, plus tea or snacks if the crew are required to work late into the evening. Catering is provided by specialist companies who drive catering trucks packed with food and a range of equipment including ovens, extraction fans, fridges, gas and water, to each Unit Base.
Location Managers work on feature films, television drama, drama-documentaries and continuing drama productions. They research and assess suitable locations, based on the script and discussions with the Production Designer and Director. They negotiate contracts and payments, and present their findings to the Director and Producer and other decision makers. They oversee all logistical aspects of the location during shooting.
Low Loaders / A Frames
When a scene features Actors driving vehicles they are a number of ways to enable the scene to be shot. One is to have the car, or motorbike or other vehicle, on a trailer being towed by a camera vehicle.
The trailer, a Low Loader, has its base very near to the ground so the car being filmed appears to be at the right height as if it were driving on the road.
Another method is to attach a triangular shaped frame made out of steel poles, an 'A Frame' to the front of a car, with the other end attached to a camera vehicle which tows the car. Here, the car is actually on the road and although the actor doesn't actually need to steer the car, the movement of the car's front wheels make it look like it is being steered. With this method, the car is at the right height on the road and though the distance between the camera and the car is fixed, making shooting easier, there is always some natural movement between the two as there would be if the car was following the tracking vehicle.
Make-up Artists work on feature films, television shows, some commercials and pop promos, working to the Chief Make-up Artist. They work at the beginning of the shooting day and on the set applying make-up and hair pieces as specified by the Make-Up Designer. Make-up and Hair are key elements in the overall design of films or television productions, creating a look for the characters in relation to social class, and historical period. Make-up Artists should be experienced in using a wide variety of professional make-up products. They must be able to work to make-up designs to meet production requirements. They also work with facial hair, and may be required to affix any required small prosthetics. They oversee make-up continuity on their performer(s) during the shoot, and remove products as required.
The Make-Up Assistant, also known as the Assistant Make-up Artist, works on feature films and on some commercials, and are responsible to Make-up Artists, and Chief Make-up Artists. Their responsibilities vary depending on the size of the production. If there are no Make-up Trainees on a film, Assistants assume their duties and the work involves setting up workstations, assisting senior staff, and working on crowd scenes. However, on smaller productions Assistant Make-up Artists may be given responsibility for make-up for minor or principal characters. Assistant Make-up Artists are employed during production, and sometimes during pre-production.
Makeup Design Assistant
The Makeup Design Assistant, supports the whole make-up team to generally ensure materials are kept in stock and are available when required. They also work on crowd scenes, dirtying faces, hairpieces etc.
Make-up and Hair Designers usually work on feature films and high budget television dramas and must be proficient in both make-up and hair techniques. They create the overall look for all the characters in relation to the script, character and period. They are the most senior person in the make-up department and can be responsible for a large team. They're also responsible for the continuity and care of make-up and hair throughout the pre-production and production periods.
Make-up Vehicles / Trailers
When a Film or TV production is working on location, Make-Up Vehicles and Trailers are used to provide a mobile make-up room for the make-up crew to work in. These can range from vans to full size trailers, all modified for the purpose.
Model makers specialise in designing, and building three-dimensional scale models and miniatures for use on film productions. They may be responsible for creating models for the Visual Special Effects unit, props for the Props Master, or specific items for the set and scenery. They liaise closely with Production Designers in order to establish the appearance of the models required. The work requires imaginative flair, good drawing skills, and practical hand skills, such as sculpting and modelling.
Music Arranger / Composer
The Composer writes music to enhance the mood and feel and pace of the film in collaboration with the Director's vision. The Composer writes a score that guides the audience through the drama, increase a films' emotional impact, and gives it atmosphere. They assemble and brief appropriate teams, including Orchestrators, Copyists, and Programmers, and oversee the entire process, from early in pre-production when films are at the assembly stage, through to the final sound mix.
The Music Director coordinates the work of the composer, the editor, and sound mixers. They may also research and obtain rights to commercial songs for a production. Also known as, Musical Director, Musical Direction, Music Supervisor, Music Direction.
Music Editors are part of the editing team and help Directors to achieve their musical ambitions on films. For film music to work successfully it must be well written, well performed and appropriate to the story, setting and pace of the film. It must be carefully placed within the film, in order to complement the action, rather than detract from it.
Music Editors' responsibilities vary according to each film's musical content and budget. They are usually responsible for all the music featured on film soundtracks, including: performed music (e.g., a band or singer who performs within the narrative of the film), all sourced music (e.g., bought-in pop, jazz, classical music), and the score, written by the Composer specifically for the film. On musical films Music Editors are responsible for how the music is visually portrayed, working closely with the picture Editor to achieve the perfect fusion of image and movement.
The Music Producer's main contribution to the film is at the music recording session where they supervise the recording and mixing, coach and guide the musicians and organise and schedule the sessions in line with the budget and resources.
Music Reporting Form
When music is used in a TV or film production a Music Reporting Form must be completed and passed onto the Music Reporting Unit who process the music usage to the copyright collecting bodies, who then pay the copyright holders.
The process of cutting the camera negative to match the cutting copy worked on by the editor and director for many months. The negative can also be cut from an edit list from a digital editing system such as Avid or Final Cut Pro. Prints are made from this cut negative or if many prints are required, an interpositive and internegative are made and the prints made from the internegative.