Hire cars and buses are often required during TV and film production be it to take an Actor from hotel to set or to pick up a quiz guest from the station.


Telecine is the process of transferring film onto a video or digital format. The term is also the name of the machine used to do this, the Telecine Machine. This can look and operate in a similar way to a film projector but instead of projecting the image onto a screen, light transmitted through the film reaches a sensor on the other side of the film which converts the light into a video signal. Telecine allows a film to be converted, to be viewed on standard video equipment, such as televisions, video cassette decks or computers and to be converted to DVD. It is also used to capture the original images which are required for the creation of Visual Effects.


Transcriptions describes the conversion of spoken words into written text, and in practical terms, transcriptions are made from interviews shot for documentaries to allow the director and editor to easily and quickly select pieces to use in the film. Transcriptions can also be made for post-production script and PasC.


The translation of pre and post-production scripts into other languages for 'Foreign Versionning'.

Transport Captain

The Transport Captain is responsible for the daily transportation schedule of the cast and key crew to and from the location or studio during a film shoot. Their work brings them into contact with most of the key production personnel. Depending on the film's size, they are either hired by the Transport Coordinator, Line Producer or Production Coordinator, and will themselves hire and take charge of a team of Drivers who are responsible for ferrying actors, crew and documents, to and from the set.

Transport Coordinator

The Transport Coordinator works on very large-scale feature films, which have major transportation requirements. They are usually hired by the Producer to manage the entire transport schedule, including freight shipping, the hire of facilities vehicles, and the movement of cast and crew to and from locations. The role requires good transport and film industry experience, as well as excellent planning, budgetary and management skills.

Transport Manager

The Transport Manager is in charge of managing all the large vehicles on a film production. These include mobile makeup and costume vehicles, artist trailers, mobile production offices, and mobile toilet units (known as honey wagons), as well as trucks and vans for moving props, sets and equipment. Reporting to the Transport Coordinator on bigger budget films, they work closely with other crew members, such as the Location Manager, Line Producer, or Second Assistant Director, to ensure that the right number of vehicles arrive, on time, and at the correct locations.

Travel Coordinator

The Travel Coordinator is responsible for organising foreign travel for the cast and crew when filming abroad. They would also be involved in arranging visas when required.


Underwater Cameraman

The Underwater Cameraman, Director of Photography (DOP) or Underwater Camera Operator, has the same role as those of the main DOP: to interpret the Director's vision for the underwater scenes or sequences in the screenplay. They're specialists in bringing the underwater world alive, and for maintaining health and safety guidelines in the water. Only a small number of Underwater DOPs work on feature films in the UK, and most have invested in their own underwater cameras; some have invented their own advanced communication systems and specialist equipment.

Unit Driver

Unit Drivers are employed during film production to drive artists, directors, producers and/or crew members, to and from the film location. Often self-employed, and owners of their own vehicles, they are usually hired by the Transport Captain, and work as part of a team of other Drivers throughout the production. The role requires excellent driving skills, the ability to be punctual, and to get on with, and be sensitive to the needs of, their passengers.

Unit Manager

The Unit Manager (UM) works in the Location Department and support the Location Manager and the Assistant Location Manager. UMs liaise between the film crew and the location, making sure that the property's residents or landlords are kept informed and happy so that filming can progress quickly. UMs are responsible for parking and positioning most of the location's vehicles, ranging from crew cars to Facilities trucks. UMs are also responsible for organising the collection and disposal of waste materials, e.g., water and/or rubbish from the location. They are responsible for the smooth running of the Unit Base including the Facilities trucks, vehicles for Hair, Makeup and Wardrobe, as well as the toilets - known as Honey Wagons.

Unit Minibus Driver

Unit Minibus Drivers work during a production as part of the driving team that transports cast, extras and crew to and from locations and unit bases. Although they may be junior members of the driving team, they must be over 25 years of age for insurance purposes when working on a film shoot.

Unit Publicist

The Unit Publicist (UP) provides a vital liaison between Producer, cast, crew and the media during film shoots. By generating publicity, they help Sales Agents to sell films and to create public interest. UPs work closely with Producers, Distributors and Sales Agents to plan the press strategy for film shoots, making sure that only the right amount of information is released at specific times, so that the press coverage is not jeopardised when the film is released.

UPs are responsible for Unit press and publicity budgets which are set by Producers. UPs work on a freelance basis, and are hired only for the duration of each shoot, although they may also be employed to handle distribution publicity in the run-up to the film's release date.


Video Assist

The Video Assist is a small piece of video equipment mounted onto a movie camera and links to a monitor to allow the director to see exactly what the camera operator is seeing and thus ensure that the film is being shot and framed the way they want. It uses a small video sensor, similar to those in consumer camcorders, inside the camera's viewfinder. As well as send the signal to a nearby monitor for the Director, a picture is also sent a LCD monitor mounted directly on the camera. On digital video cameras, this device is not necessary as the camera relays video directly.


See Passports.

Vision Mixer

The Vision Mixers work across all genres of television programmes, which are either transmitted live, recorded as live, or pre-recorded in any multi-camera environment in studios or during Outside Broadcasts (OBs). These include news, sport, current affairs, entertainment, studio-based dramas, and so on. On studio-based programmes, the Vision Mixer work in the Production Gallery, on OBs they are based in the mobile Production Gallery in the OB vehicle.

Vision Mixers edit programmes live as the action happens, by switching between cameras to create the sequence the Director requires. They can use a variety of transition methods, such as cuts, mixes, wipes, digital transitions , etc. They can also select images from other sources such as, video tape recorders, graphics generators, and digital video effects (DVEs).

Visual Effects

Visual Effects describes the vast range of digital effects, including CGI, created for modern movies. Before work begins, the shots for which Visual Effects work is required are transferred from the original camera negative into the digital system.

Visual Effects can be used for many purposes, from simply removing unwanted items like wires used for flying sequences or stunt safety, adding backgrounds to green screen scenes, to replacing pylons in locations used for period films, to the more complex creation of creatures and machines to replication of crowds for epic scenes. Visual Effects are created using computer systems and sophisticated software. Many hours can be spent working on a single shot which has to be perfect to be believable when projected on a large screen and has to fit seamlessly into the look of the movie. Once the Visual Effects shots are completed, they're transferred back onto film to be cut into the master negative for printing release prints of the film.

VT Operator

The job of the VT (Video Tape) operator is to record and playback video material on a tape machine, disk recorder or computer-based system. This can be in a live production setting or post-production editing session.

In some situations this job can be as easy as pressing record, rewind and play. In other situations, such as for a live sports event, it can be very demanding, requiring a high level of coordination, fast hands and quick thinking.


Walkie Talkies

A Walkie-Talkie is a hand-held, portable, two-way radio, vital on film locations for communications between all departments.

Wardrobe Assistant

The Wardrobe Assistant works with the Wardrobe Supervisor, and assists is getting actors into costumes and checking everything is correct in accordance with the requirements of the Costume Designer. They're particularly valuable for crowd scenes where many people have to be dressed and checked before going on set.

Wardrobe Supervisor

Although Wardrobe Supervisors are often referred to as Costume Supervisors, the Wardrobe Supervisors' role is actually a separately defined position. On feature films they are normally only employed on larger-budget productions. They are responsible to Costume Supervisors and Designers and oversee the day-to-day running and use of the wardrobe on set (the 'running wardrobe'). They manage on-set staff, including Costume Assistants, Standbys and Dailies, arrange transport, oversee continuity, and ensure that all the equipment needed for costume maintenance is functioning correctly.

Wig Designer

A Wig Designer works within the makeup department, designing and preparing wigs and hairpieces. Wigs can be made from scratch or they can be bought and altered to the requirements of the Make-Up Supervisor.


Zoom Lens

The Zoom Lens is the standard lens fitted to video cameras used for television productions and is also used on film cameras on film productions though, not always as the generally used day-to-day lens. The main feature of the zoom lens, as opposed to a fixed lens, is that the size of the image can be changed by adjusting the lens rather than moving the camera on a dolly. However, there is a difference between the look of the zoom shot and the dolly or tracking shot in that, with the zoom shot, though the image changes size, the perspective stays the same. In a tracking shot, as the camera moves, the entire perspective of the image changes, more accurately replicating the view from the human eye.